The patriarchs of the town truly dominated the lazy if paranoid killing of daytime hours, sucking nicotine and caffeine. It was as if someone had pulled a purple-gray curtain over everything, and we were back inside the compound—Lume’s sister-in-law toting another heavy load of branches, Lume lifting the heavy saddle off her horse—when her brother appeared at twilight.

At the same time, we have to realize that the massive screening programs using cervical cytology in many countries have reduced the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer to 43% and 46%, respectively. In countries with low income, where the screening programs using HPV DNA are difficult to apply, there is still much to be done using conventional cytology in reducing the incidence and mortality of CC. To estimate the frequency of human papillomavirus positivity in a group of Albanian women, the prevalence of vaginal coinfections, and the relationship of coinfections with HPV, as well as their role in metaplasia or cervical intraepithelial lesions .

mail order brides wiki

In such a traditional society, the women have subordinate roles in Gheg communities that believe in “male predominance”. This is despite the arrival of democracy and the adoption of a free market economy in Albania, after the period under the communist Party of Labour. Gheg Albanian culture is based on the 500-year-old Kanun of Lekë Dukagjini, a traditional Gheg code of conduct, where the main role of women is to take care of the children and to take care of the home.

Based on interviews with women politicians and analysis, the study identifies various forms of violence against women in Albanian politics, such as contempt and offensive language. From the shaking of his head yes and no, which meant no and yes, I still had no idea what Ermal—or his God—thought of what we’d seen. But as he drove me back to the hotel on the last night in Tirana, he told me something he’d probably been waiting to say for a while. When it came to the burrneshas, no, it wasn’t right to exist in this in-between; everyone should live as their sex—and not in this sort of confusion and loneliness. He was glad that the burrneshas were nearing extinction, glad for the burrneshas themselves especially. Shkurtan had large ears, little feet, a prominent nose, and rheumy eyes. The tip of his middle finger was gone, lost when his hand became tied up in rope that was attached to a runaway calf.

In our study, we have also aimed at evaluating metaplasia, which is a direct consequence of the inflammation caused by the coinfection of HPV with the other vaginal infections. In our study metaplasia, including the atypical type, was found in 11% of the cases while CIN 1 in 11.5% of the cases . From all the cases with metaplasia, more than half had cytological positivity for HPV (56.3%) and 56% of them tested positive at the same time for coinfection. By statistical analysis, we found that infection with HPV is a major factor leading to metaplasia, which is a fertile terrain for cervical cancer.

Albanian women in physics

In addition, many local health offices lack the appropriate resources for addressing these diseases, which requires women to travel long distances to the capital and even to neighboring countries to seek screenings and treatment. To address these problems, the women’s network launched the campaign “Healthy Women, Healthy Society” to educate both women and decision-makers about women’s health issues and advocate for increased funding for medical equipment and treatment. In our study, the women examined represented a target group recommended for Pap smear examination after being examined by a gynecologist and were not a random group of women without signs or symptoms. Therefore, the cytological positivity of HPV infection in our study was as high as 43%. In other studies, with screening purposes, the numbers are of course lower, whereas in studies conducted on sexually active females with gynecologic symptoms, the numbers are very high. Our study confirms a high incidence of HPV infection as the most common STD in many countries with the highest distribution in age groups with an active sexual life. It is estimated that the incidence of new infections in the United States ranges from 1 million to 5.5 million per year, and the prevalence is estimated to be as high as 20 million.

Network of Albanian Women in STEM

These sexually transmitted infections have become the object of many studies and research teams all over the world; studies have shown a connection with cervical cancer when they are coexisting with HPV infection. In recent studies, in addition to the Pap smear examination and the age of the female patient, there is significant emphasis in HPV DNA testing. This test, combined with the Pap smear examination, shows a sensitivity of 96–100% in diagnosing CIN or CC. However, the HPV DNA test is not recommended as a primary tool for screening women younger than 30 years old because in most of them the HPV infection self-heals spontaneously in a short time. Based on the fact that cancerous lesions are often related with the persistence of HPV and not just infection with the virus, continuous retesting for HPV DNA is an important step in preventing CC. HPV DNA testing is recommended for women of all ages when the Pap smear results in ASCUS, and is a good follow-up test for woman with positive colposcopy or cytology. Despite the high sensitivity and selectivity of HPV DNA testing in combination with cytology, in developing countries, it remains difficult to apply because of the high cost of the examination.

In only three months they managed to support 650 people directly and 2,500 through online counselling, all without dedicated financial support, so fundraising has been part of the initiative. Services include response and referrals for individuals in need of psychological counselling, social and legal services; support to families in need of food and other basic needs; and empowerment for resilience webinars and campaigns to support local businesses.

Which is what made it increasingly uncomfortable to go knocking on doors. When we came to Mark, who lived in a town outside the capital, we were met with a steely glare. For almost his entire eighty years, he’d lived as a man, and no one had ever known. Then one of his family members revealed him, and in an instant everything had changed. Those in town regarded him differently; intruding strangers like us came around. He pointed to paintings on the wall, of Jesus on the Cross, of the Virgin Mary.

The role of co-factors in the progression from human papillomavirus infection to cervical cancer. Related to CIN, the cases with positive cytology for HPV and CIN1 are 173 (74.2%), which shows an important relationship between HPV infection and CIN. When it comes to coinfections, we see that 82 women out of 173 have at the same time CIN, HPV and vaginal coinfection. Using logistical regression, we find a direct connection between coinfection and CIN, but there is no statistically significant connection between HPV with coinfections in the development of CIN. Discussing the distribution of HPV positivity in different age groups, it is interesting to notice that in our country there is a similar age group distribution with the countries of Eastern Europe.

NAW-STEM is running #STEMspresso – an express introduction to an exceptional woman in STEM and her work – consisting of monthly online/offline short meetings, where speakers share their research, careers, work in STEM and on STEM. He Network of Albanian Women in STEM (NAW-STEM) aims to contribute to the social and economic empowerment of women by increasing their representation in STEM, both in academia and industry. In conclusion I would like to emphasize that I strived to offer the reader what the Germans call zeitgeist .

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.